Welding and soldering are an integral part of manufacturing, construction, and pipeline maintenance that uses high heat to join two or more materials. Different types of welding (for example, arc, plastic, spot, and stud) use equipment specialized for the application and the materials joined. Soldering joins circuit board components and copper pipe. Filler metals melt easily when heated to fill the gaps between the materials being joined to ensure a strong bond. Welding and soldering area protection closes off areas or covers nearby surfaces to protect against damage caused by sparks and UV light. Fume extraction removes airborne contaminants that cause a health risk to workers. Welding tables, fixtures, and preparation tools mark cut and weld lines and hold workpieces in place. Inspection and testing ensures welds don't have defects that can affect performance. Weld cleaning removes contaminants and restores and passivates surfaces.