Straight-flute taps create or repair internal threads in blind holes and through holes. They are sometimes called hand taps. Chips move into the taps' flutes but are not evacuated as the taps are rotated into a hole to cut threads. Carbide taps are harder and more heat-resistant than high-speed steel and powdered-metal taps. They are used for tapping hard materials at high speeds. Powdered-metal taps are tougher and less likely to break than cobalt and high-speed steel taps and are used for tapping highly abrasive materials. Vanadium high-speed steel taps offer better resistance to abrasion and wear than standard high-speed steel taps. High-speed steel taps offer good wear resistance for tapping a range of materials. Carbon steel taps are primarily used for thread repair.