Fasteners are pieces of hardware that mechanically join multiple materials or objects together. Bolts, screws, anchors, rivets, nails, spikes, and staples are inserted into or through a mounting surface and secure materials together through mechanical friction or with another fastener. Nuts, pins, safety lockwire, and retaining rings are installed onto other fasteners and help secure them in place. Spacers, standoffs, washers,shims, and shim stock help ensure components are spaced and aligned correctly to avoid damage. Threaded rods and studs provide long mounting areas for female-threaded fasteners. Threaded inserts screw into threaded holes and repair or resize their threading to ensure a solid connection. Keys and key stock secure rotational components in place and provide a bearing surface to transmit power between a drive shaft and the driven component.